Beijing Massage Guide

Beijing A Brief History

2017-06-20 18:36:07 | views


According to historical records, during 1,100 B.C., Beijing used to be a small kingdom subinfeudated to West Zhou Dynasty, called Ji. In the middle of the Spring and Autumn Period (770-476 B.C.), Ji was conquered by another subinfeudated kingdom, Yan. It remained capital of Yan until Yan was finally defeated by Qin in 226 B.C. Archaeological evidence shows that the specific geographic location of Ji is now south western part of Beijing city.


In 938 A.D., Ji became provisional capital of Liao, a kingdom established by a minority ethnic group in north eastern China, Qidan. Because Ji lied in the southern part of Liao's territory, it was also called Nanking (capital in the south) and Yanjing. About a century later, Jin, a kingdom established by Jurchens (another minority ethnic group), occupied Liao. In 1153, Jin moved its capital to Ji, and changed its name to Zhongdu (capital in the middleland). In fear of attacks from Mongolian army, Jin moved its capital to Bianliang (Kaifeng in Henan Province) in 1214. Mongolian warriors took Zhongdu the next year. In 1267, Kublai, Khan of the Mongolians and grandson of Genghis Khan, built a new town at north eastern part of Zhongdu, and was enthroned there 4 years later. Yuan Dynasty started. In 1258, the new town was completed, which was the grandeur capital of the Yuan Dynasty described by Marco Polo. It remained capital for the following two feudalism dynasties Ming and Qing, until the democratic revolution started in October, 1911. Puyi, the last emperor of Qing Dynasty was driven out of the Forbidden Palace on 5th December, 1924. Beijing's history as capital of the feudalism dynasties concluded.


During the consecutive 30 years, Beijing endured continuous damages of wars between different warlords from different parts of the country. According to statistics, there were 140 wars happened across the nation during the time between 1916 to 1928. In order to obtain control of Beijing, Cao Kun group from Hebei Province united Zhang Zuolin from the north eastern provinces in 1920, and defeated Duan Qirui group originated from Anhui Province. After the two wars between Cao Kun group and Zhang Zuolin group in 1922 and 1924, Feng Yuxiang, new leader of Cao Kun group became the actual governor of Beijing. From 1937 to 1945, the old city suffered another 8 years of invasion and occupation of the Japanese army. Kuomintang governed the city for 4 years after Japan was defeated during WWII until on 1st October, 1949, the People's Republic of China was founded, and Beijing remained capital